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Memristor:la nouvelle revolution electronique qui se prepare

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MessagePosté le: Ven 23 Avr 2010 08:28    Sujet du message: Memristor:la nouvelle revolution electronique qui se prepare Répondre en citant

Vue au microscope électronique d'un circuit de 17 memristors

Memristorou Memory Resistor est le quatrieme et dernier composant du groupe des elements electronique passifs, les autres etants: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor.
Predit et decrit en 1971 par le mathematicien Leon Chua professeur a l'universite de Berkeley dans un article du "IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory" intitule
Memristor-The missing circuit element

Abstract:Memristor-The missing circuit element a écrit:
A new two-terminal circuit element-called the memristorcharacterized by a relationship between the chargeq(t)equiv int_{-infty}^{t} i(tau) d tauand the flux-linkagevarphi(t)equiv int_{- infty}^{t} v(tau) d tauis introduced as the fourth basic circuit element. An electromagnetic field interpretation of this relationship in terms of a quasi-static expansion of Maxwell's equations is presented. Many circuit-theoretic properties of memistors are derived. It is shown that this element exhibits some peculiar behavior different from that exhibited by resistors, inductors, or capacitors. These properties lead to a number of unique applications which cannot be realized withRLCnetworks alone. Although a physical memristor device without internal power supply has not yet been discovered, operational laboratory models have been built with the help of active circuits. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the properties and potential applications of memristors.

Le memristor restera que theorie jusqu'en avril 2008,37 ans plutard, une equipe de chercheurs des laboratoires de HP(Hewlett-Packard) annonce avoir reussi la premiere implementation physique du memristor dans le journal Nature.

Interview-video du responsable de l'equipe de recherche:

En avril 2010 HP annonce avoir reussi a developper un procede de fabrication en serie des memristors.

Le potentiel des possibles applications du memristor liees a ses proprietes est ce qui excite tout le monde par rapport au memristor, surtout sa capacite a pouvoir remplacer le transistor et le surpasser.

On parle de CPU avec memoires integrees, parce que le memristor comme les neurones memorise, peut stocker directement l'information et la garder meme apres qu'il ne recoive plus d'energie.

On parle de CPUs qui s'etendent dans la 3eme dimension, parce que les memristors peuvent etre appliquees en couches.

On parle de CPU analogue parce que le memristor n'est pas confine a 2 etats on/off (1/0) mais peut prendre une multitude d'etats.

On parle de tres forte densite d'integration, le memristor pouvant etre fabrique tres petit quelques nanometres.

Les memristors peuvent etre fabriques en utilisant les technologies de fabrication actuelle, donc d'ici quelques temps vous verrez les premiers Ram et Disque dur fait de memristors et d'ici quelques annees les ordinateurs analogues fonctionant comme le cerveau.
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MessagePosté le: Sam 08 Oct 2011 07:05    Sujet du message: HP plans to release first memristor memory alternative Répondre en citant

HP plans to release first memristor memory alternative to flash and solid state drives in 18 months.

HP intends to have an alternative technology to flash on the market in eighteen months, an alternative to DRAM in three to four years and, following DRAM, a replacement for SRAM, Stan Williams, Senior Fellow at HP, told the IEF2011 meeting in Seville this morning.

"We’re planning to put a replacement chip on the market to go up against flash within a year and a half," said Williams, "and we also intend to have an SSD replacement available in a year and a half."

"In 2014 possibly, or certainly by 2015, we will have a competitor for DRAM and then we’ll replace SRAM."

The 'memristor'is two-terminal non-volatile memory technology.

EEtimes - We have a lot of big plans for it and we're working with Hynix Semiconductor to launch a replacement for flash in the summer of 2013 and also to address the solid-state drive market," Williams told the audience of the International Electronics Forum.

Williams said that the memristor metrics being achieved, in terms of energy to change a bit, read, write time, retention and endurance, were so compelling that the HP-Hynix team now considered flash replacement a done deal.

"Now we’re going after DRAM, and we think we can do two orders of magnitude improvement in terms of switching energy per bit."

HP’s technology allows the memory layers to be put directly on top of the processor layer making for very fast systems on chip.

"We put the non-volatile memory right on top of the processor chip, and, because you’re not shipping data off-chip, that means we get the equivalent of 20 years of Moore’s Law performance improvement," said Williams.

"We’re running hundreds of wafers through the fab," said Williams, we’re way ahead of where we thought we would be at this moment in time."

HP’s approach is memristor, thin film technology which it allows it to stack an "arbitrary number of layers," said Williams, with 500 billion memristors per layer at 5nm.

Asked if HP was going back into the components business, Williams replied: "We’re the world’s largest purchaser of DRAM and the second largest buyer of flash and we’re trying to disrupt and re-arrange our supply chain. The plan is to license this technology to anyone who wants it, and we’ll teach them how to make it. But you’ll have to stand in line, we have a bunch of people queued for it. We’re doing this because, frankly, we didn’t see a hell of a lot of innovation happening out there."

Asked about the competition, Williams said: "Samsung has An even larger group working on this than we do."

When challenged over the cost of the technology, which would be the barrier to competing against the high-volume flash memory market, Williams said: "On a price per bit basis we could be an order of magnitude lower cost once you get the NRE [non-recurring expenses] out of the way."

HP has amassed some 500 patents around the memristor over the last three years. He also acknowledged that phase-change memory (PCM), Resistive RAM (RRAM) and other two-terminal memory devices are all memristor-type devices.

Williams touted the cross-point nature of the memristor memory switch or resistive RAM device as a memory capacity advantage over flash memory. "Whatever the best in flash memory is, we'll be able to double that."

Implication logic and the synapse

Williams compared HP's resistive RAM technology against flash and claimed to meet or exceed the performance of flash memory in all categories. Read times are less than 10 nanoseconds and write/erase times are about 0.1-ns. HP is still accumulating endurance cycle data at 10^12 cycles and the retention times are measured in years, he said.

This creates the prospect of adding dense non-volatile memory as an extra layer on top of logic circuitry. "We could offer 2-Gbytes of memory per core on the processor chip. Putting non-volatile memory on top of the logic chip will buy us twenty years of Moore's Law, said Williams.

Further out Williams said the memristor could be used for computation under a scheme called "implication logic" in a fraction of the area taken up in CMOS by Boolean logic. In addition a memristor device is a good analog of the synapse in brain function.

One of the best things about the memristor memory is that it is a simple structure made using materials that are already common in the world's wafer fabs making CMOS-compatible devices relatively straight forward, he said.

In conclusion Williams stressed that HP would not be getting into the semiconductor components business but would seek to commercialize and then license the technology to all comers.
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MessagePosté le: Sam 08 Oct 2011 19:51    Sujet du message: Répondre en citant

Finding the Missing Memristor - R. Stanley Williams

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